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IGF Plus / IGF+ IGF - PLUS Rapid Muscle Growth & General Health Formula IGF growth formula IGF-Plus combines the proven and remarkably powerful benefits of Deer Antler Extract (fastest-developing animal organism in the world) -- its more concentrated proteins, Amino acids, and IGF growth factors -- with the slower supporting action of Pure Antler Velvet (which contains the full range of mineral and trace element content.) The result is a truly superior natural health & muscle growth super supplement.
This product has so many benefits in so many areas it's hard to focus on just a few. Here are some generalized results from clinical trials: Desired Effect Improvement Muscular Strength 88% Energy Level 84% Body Fat Reduction 82% Sexual Potency 75% Emotional Stability 67% Memory 62% Wrinkle Reduction 61%
What's in Deer Antler Velvet? Deer antler velvet is named after the soft, velvet-like covering that deer antlers have before they turn bony. Antlers are organs of bone which regenerate each year from the heads of male deer. In addition to bone, support tissues such as nerves also regenerate. Nerves grow up to 1 cm each day, the fastest growing biologically active tissue known to science. Deer antler velvet contains many substances including amino acids, minerals, proteins, anti-inflammatory peptides, hormones, gangliosides and glycosaminoglycans, and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (which is known to be the master regulator responsible for body size - NHGRI.) It represents the only renewable form of cartilage, accounting for its signficant effects on bone and cartilage health and renewal. It is loaded with beneficial collagen, prostoglandin, phospholipids, proteoglycans, minerals, fatty acids and steroids. It is also rich with both chondroitin sulphate and glucosamine sulphate. The Chinese have long believed that Antler Velvet is a "wonder supplement."
A 2,000-year-old scroll discovered in a tomb in Hunan Province, China, listed dozens of different diseases that could be treated with deer velvet. The 16th century "Materia Medica," a standard text of Chinese herbalists, lists deer velvet as one of the most highly prized natural medicinal substances. Furthermore, research by Dr Andrezj Bartke and the BioMarker Foundation into life-span factors, while studying long-lived Ames dwarf mice, found that the Insulin Growth Factor genetic pathways are directly involved in confering longevity by increasing resistance to stress, enhancing immune function, and altering programmed aging. Nathan Sutter of the National Human Genome Research Institute, one of the National Institutes of Health, states, "IGF1 is amazing. It pops up all over the place... for example, it can account for different risks in a person getting prostate cancer."'
Evidence is proving the Chinese were right about Antler Velvet, and IGF-Plus is a powerful modern synthesis of this ancient and life-giving formulation. What is meant by "growth"? Growth requires many, many co-ordinated processes in the body, and that in turn means a complex dance of lots of different hormones, which typically are the messengers that tell different parts of the body what to do and when. Growth hormones are the power behind muscle growth. They stimulate both the differentiation and proliferation of muscle cells, amino acid uptake and the synthesis of protein in muscle and other tissues. This is where IGF-Plus' profound ability to influence overall muscle growth comes from.
This formula uses New Zealand pure deer antler velvet, which is the highest purity and quality available on the market, and is consequently subject to quota restrictions (which also makes it hard to keep in stock, especially given its remarkable benefits.) The amazing re-order rate of this product is further proof of its efficacy. Try it for a minimum of 2-3 weeks to see its full effects. IGF-Plus has beneficial effects for both men and women. Our new extraction process has increased the growth factor percentage by 300% for an even more effective formula. A Summary of Research on Velvet Antler Dietary Supplements Michael L. Laughlin Copyrighted material reprinted with permission
TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Pharmacology Clinical Research Bone and Joint Health Growth and Strength Enhancement Cardiovascular Health Other Reported Benefits History of Velvet Antler Processing Factors Summary Personal Experiences References Introduction More than 50 million North Americans suffer from the debilitating pain of osteoarthritis and joint injuries,and many older household pets also experience joint inflammation and lack of mobility due to arthritic conditions. Ironically, most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs actually contribute to joint degeneration, and also risk a host of other potentially dangerous side effects.A review of literature and scientific studies related to the use of velvet antler products as an alternative to drugs provides compelling evidence to support the claim that compounds in velvet antler may be significantly more effective and longer-lasting than many conventional prescription and non-prescription drugs for relief of the symptoms of osteoarthritis.
Additionally, velvet antler provides benefits such as increased vitality, enhanced cardiovascular health, improved mental health, significantly increased sexual function and desire, and relief of some conditions associated with aging. Other research indicates that velvet antler may assist in growth and strength training. Furthermore, as a natural dietary supplement, velvet antler does not produce drug-related side effects and is therefore considered by many researchers to be safer for use than most conventional drugs. The production of elk and deer velvet antler as a dietary supplement or medicinal substance constitutes a major industry in Asia, and the history of velvet antler use in Asian countries dates back more than 2,000 years.
Collection of elk antler is performed without endangering the host animals. Harvesting is a simple procedure performed once per year during the spring "velvet" stage of antler growth. During this period, the antlers are in a soft cartilaginous state, providing peak potency of the compounds associated with the claims made in numerous studies regarding velvet antler’s beneficial effects. (top) Pharmacology Elk antler is composed of a variety of different tissues, including cartilage, and is also rich in collagen, a crucial protein, and glycosaminonoycans. Glycosaminoglycans help form cartilage proteoglycans, which regulate water retention and cell differentiation. They also help proliferate chondrocytes in cartilaginous tissue. Velvet antler contains nearly 40 key compounds including:
Chondroitin sulfate, a carbohydrate that attracts fluid into proteoglycan molecules and protects cartilage from destructive enzymes Glucosamine sulfate, the building block of cartilage and a reported anti-inflammatory easily absorbed by the body Lipids, to build cells and boost energy Prostaglandins, powerful anti-inflammatory agents Monoamine-oxidase inhibitors, which enhance mood Selenium, which reduces infections, and protects blood cells, the heart, liver and lungs Calcium, for bones, teeth, nerves, blood clotting and muscle contraction Collagen, a major structural protein that binds joints together and serves as a main component of articular cartilage Phosphorus, which helps build bones and teeth, and is a key component of metabolic reaction
Polysaccharides, which helps regulate blood clotting activity All essential amino acids, the building blocks of protein Potassium, for nerves and muscles Magnesium, to help cells restore and release energy Bone morphogenetic protein, which speeds bone growth Growth factors, which aid in cartilage cell development. (top) Clinical Research Although traditional Chinese medical literature dating back more than 2,000 years extols the benefits of velvet antler as a premium medicinal substance, recent studies provide compelling scientific evident supporting the use of velvet antler to relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis. Additional research indicates velvet antler may provide beneficial effects in several other areas including cardiovascular health, mental health and growth and strength enhancement. (top) Bone and Joint Health Osteoarthritis is caused by the loss of cartilage in bone joints. In normal joints, cartilage serves as a buffer between bones.
Usually the body replenishes cartilage as it wears away, but when osteoarthritis occurs, cartilage deteriorates faster than the body can replace it. Eventually, the bones begin to rub together, causing pain, swelling and loss of joint mobility. Most treatments for osteoarthritis attempt to reduce pain and maintain joint function, but these treatments do little to restore joint health. In fact, many prescription and over-the-counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs actually prevent the growth of collagen in joints, causing further cartilage degeneration.
These drugs can also produce other serious side effects such as deterioration of the gastrointestinal tract lining, and liver and kidney damage. Researchers believe that the imbalance between cartilage erosion and regeneration in osteoarthritis suffers is caused by a lack of glycosaminoglycans. Glycosaminoglycans play a vital role in the structural integrity of cartilage. Several studies indicate that velvet antler can reduce or even eliminate symptoms associated with osteoarthritis. Recent clinical tests suggest oral ingestion of glycosaminoglycan-peptide complex, or components such as chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate — both found in velvet antler — may help stimulate cartilage repair. Placebo-controlled double-masked studies of both humans and animals on the therapeutic effects of glycosaminoglnoan-peptide complex appear to confirm these investigations. Researchers are now studying how these apparent effects occur. Chondroitin sulfate, the most abundant glycosaminoglycan found in velvet antler, is used in surgery to stabilize tissue. Several studies on humans indicate regular oral ingestion of chondroitin sulfate can significantly reduce the symptoms associated with osteoarthritis.
The compound appears to inhibit enzymes that deplete cartilage nutrition. Chondroitin sulfate molecules are long chains of sugars and sulfur that create tiny spaces filled with fluid. These spaces protect and cushion joints. Randomized studies of glucosamine indicate the compound not only inhibits cartilage degradation but also helps repair damaged cartilage. An eight-week double-blind trial of glucosamine on 40 osteoarthritis sufferers found that the compound had significantly longer-lasting benefits than the commonly prescribed pain killer ibuprofen.. Other studies indicate that the effects appear to continue as long as six to 12 weeks after subjects stop taking glucosamine. Additional research is now under way at the University of Calgary and the University of Alberta (Edmonton), Canada, to determine the efficacy of antler on rheumatoid arthritis. Previous studies have already suggested that the cartilage compounds found in antler may be effective at relieving rheumatoid arthritis pain. (top) Growth and Strength Enhancement ** Elk antler grows as much as 50 pounds in less than a few months, making it the fastest-developing animal organism in the world.
This rapid development is caused by antler’s highghontent of bone morphogenetic proteins, which regulate bone grgrowthas well as growth factors I and II. These growth factors increase the rate of cell division during antler development, and may contribute to the medicinal effects of velvet antler. In addition, velvet antler contains aminonocids that have been proven in studies to increase growth hormone levels in humans. A study conducted by Suttie and Haines found that animals fed high levels of active antler velvet extract grew significantly faster and as much as 12 percent more than a control group. The animals also experienced increased liver weight and a higher bone calcium content. In addition, the researchers found that antler appeared to decrease calcium excretion. In another study by Takikawa, et al., researchers reported observing new bone formation following experimental whiplash injuries in rabbits. Perhaps the most well-publicized study of antler’s strength and muscle-enhancing attributes involved a blind trial of New Zealand athletes.
Volunteers were divided into two groups, with height, weight and age closely balanced. The first group received 70 mg of velvet antler extract per day for 10 weeks, while a control group received a placebo. Subjects underwent moderate flex and weight training, and were tested twice during the 10-week period and once following the 10 weeks. The athletes were also scanned with a Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry Scanner (DEXA) before and after the trial to determine any changes in body composition. The researchers found that muscular endurance doubled among the velvet antler group, tending to support the assertion of previous studies that velvet antler improves muscle activity. At the same time, the athletes taking antler lost more body fat than those in the control group, but did not increase muscle size.
The researchers speculate that antler use may boost muscle efficiency without increasing in muscle mass. Results of the DEXA scans also suggested that velvet antler may improve muscle dynamic activity. The New Zealand researchers theorized that the antler extract may improve blood supply to muscles or act as an anti-inflammatory, allowing athletes to recover faster from training sessions. Athletes from New Zealand and other countries — swimmers and mountaineers to rugby players and golfers — have used velvet antler to increase strength, vitality and endurance. Other athletes and professionals requiring strength and endurance are also using antler as a legal substitute for anabolic steroids. Researchers at the University of Alberta, Canada, tested antler’s ability to increase strength and endurance on cadets from the Edmonton police academy. The researchers found that use of velvet antler significantly increased blood plasma testosterone levels in the men participating in the study. (top) Cardiovascular Health Several studies show a positive correlation between consistent use of velvet antler and cardiovascular healthhealthn subjects who used antler were able to endure larger work loads and experienced a shorter recovery time between exercises. One study suggested that daily use of chondroitin sulfate A — a key element of velvet antler — can reduce the risk of fatal heart attacks and stroke by more than 400 percent.
Many participants with high or low blood pressure also showed changes in blood pressure toward normal. Other studies reported an increase in heart strength and volume of blood pumped, while cardiac output, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, central venous pressure and other parameters remained unchanged. Researchers suggest that the polysaccharides in antler may reduce the blood’s tendency to clot, improving circulation, decreasing stroke risk and boosting general cardiovascular hehealthRussian and Japanese researchers have concentrated on an alcohol extract of antler called pantocrin or rantarin, discovering that the extract appears to lower blood pressure in both human subjects and laboratory animals. Additional studies indicate that use of antler significantly cut the cholesterol level in laboratory animals. (top) Other Reported Benefits Velvet antler has long been used in Asia and Russia to treat a variety of ailments and as a general tonic. A Russian study indicated that the aminonocids, polypeptides and other compounds found in antler increased the survival rate of mice with cancerous tumors as much as 40 percent.
In addition, a study conducted by the East-West Research Institute (Kyung Hee University, Korea) and the Korean Food and Drug Administration found that mice with tumors lost less weight and suffered lower levels of kidney damage than those treated with the frequently-prescribed anti-cancer drug cis-Platin (CDDP). Velvet antler also appeared to boost the effectiveness of CDDP when used in conjunction with the cancer drug. Those mice given a combination of antler extract and CDDP survived longer and had fewer side effects than mice given CDDP alone. A study by Kim, et al., also noted that velvet antler appears to increase neutrophil levels in mice, which boost the body’s ability to fighghinjuries and disease. A New Zealand study found compelling evidence that extracts of antler velvet stimulated the human immune system, as measured by increased white blood cell production. Although use of the antler extract pantocrin during World War II by Russian physicians provides anecdotal evidence of velvet antler’s healing powers, a more recent study by Bubenik found that antler helped heal epidermal wounds in rats. Clinical studies also indicate that velvet antler functions as an antidepressant and mood regulator. A study by Chen, et al., for exexple, found that velvet antler inhibits monoamnoe oxidase activity in the liver and brain tissues of aged mice. Monoamine-oxidase inhibitors prevent breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and serotonin.
Antler apparently allows these vital neurotransmitters to be available longer to the brain structure, enhancing mood. Other studies by both Fisher and Wang indicate that antler may increase testosterone levels and can help prevent some conditions associated with aging. In addition, Russian researchers claim that compounds found in antler can ease the effects of menopause in women, and can be used as to speed recovery of surgical patients. (top) History of Velvet Antler The history of antler as a medicinal substance stretches back thousands of years. Although the most well-documented ancient uses come from China and the Far East, other cultures from Northern Europe and Northern Asia to North American and ancient Rome have also benefited from the use of antler as a tonic and for treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including: Joint pain Kidney and liver problems Stomach ulcers Gout Headaches Eczema Low energy Chills Even today, antler extract compounds are listed in the pharmacopoeia of the former USSR Health Ministry as "tonic drugs."
Velvet antler has been a staple of Traditional Chinese medicine for more than 2,000 years as a wellness tonic to strengthen bones and tendons, nourish the blood, reduce swelling and to treat impotence. The use of antler dates to the Han Dynasty 206 BC to 220 AD. for treating impotence, menoxenia, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, dizziness, insomnia, amnesia, wounds, pain and arthritis. Antler is also mentioned in the chief authority on early Chinese pharmacology, the Pen Ts’ao Kang Mu. This 16th century medical classic lists a variety of antler preparations including powders, pills, exexacts, tinctures and ointments.Several modern compilations of Chinese medical preparations still contain numerous antler uses. Prior to recent times, velvet antler was offered in whole stick form. Retailers sold antler by the slice, and consumers made their own medicine at home, often mixing antler with other traditional medicines. Consumers could judge the quality of the antler by the stick’s size, color, smell and general appearance. Today the antler trade remains strong in Asia, with China producing nearly 100 tons of dried velvet antler annually. Velvet antler is also an important crop in Russia, with significant exexrts to Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong and Thailand, however, North American & New Zealand elk antler is prized throughoughAsia because it is considered by many to be more potent than the more commonly available deer antler.
Processing Factors: Each part of the elk antler contains different compounds with a variety of properties. However, many velvet antler manufacturers only use the lower calcified portions of the antler, which are considerably cheaper to purchase than the upper sections, but also contain significantly less cartilaginous tissue. Velvet antler processed in whole form appears to provide the widest selection of chemical compounds associated with the benefits claimed in the research cited. Several studies indicate that heating can reduce or destroy the beneficial properties of velvet antler. Therefore, it is vital to ensure the product is not heated during processing. However, many manufacturers of low-grade velvet antler products burn the velvet portion of the antler off before processing, because it’s less labor-intensive than nonoheat-producing methods. Some widely-used grinding methods may also produce heat, reducing the effectiveness of the product. Because of its dried properties, elk antler is not prone to contaminates such as yeast, molds, chloroforms, E. coli and salmonella.
However, standards outlined by the North American Elk Breeders Association, and practiced by premium processors, recommend laboratory testing to ensure sanitation of the product. (top) Summary There is significant credible research evidence to support the claims that use of velvet antler can enhance joint structure and function, and may provide additional benefits including increased vitality, improved cardiovascular health, mood enhancement, and as an effective strength and training aid. However, such benefits appear dependent upon the quality of antler used as well as methods employed during processing of velvet antler products. (top) Personal Experiences The following user experiences, although not clinically validated, provide further evidence of velvet antler’s efficacy in reducing joint pain and increasing overall vitality. Cyle Mark is an active 13-year-old boy. He has suffered from tendonitis of his heels for over a year. Growing pains, the doctor said. Being an athlete, this condition made it exexemely painful for him to run or jump. He started taking velvet in April of 1998. He has nonolimped since he started the capsules and has grown almost six inches. He played baseball, football and is now in basketball. Rocky is a plumber in his mid-forties.
He has severe arthritis in his hips, knees and ankles. It is almost impossible for him to work. Since starting on elk velvet, he can crawl on the ground, lay on his back, and do the necessary thinks to make a living. It has made a remarkable difference in his quality of life.
"I’ve been using velvet antler for arthritis for about one year. Before that I had taken a variety of pain relievers — often at twice the normno dosage. When I started taking velvet antler, I stopped all of that, and I haven’t taken any of it since. Prior to taking velvet antler, I’d wake up in the mornings and not nove any strength in my hands at all. Now I have a lot more strength in my hands. My mother and my sisters are using it now, and my chiropractor recommends it to his patients."— Debra Rest
"I’ve always been athletic, but due to previous injuries and — let's face it — more than a few years of wear and tear, my knees have been really stiff. I used to run nearly every day, but recently I’ve had to turn to low-impact sports such as biking to keep fit. Over the past few months I’ve been using velvet antler, and the change has been amazing. Sure, I still bicycle, but I also run, hike, ski and participate in all the other sports that used to be such a big part of my life. Velvet antler has made a profound difference in my activity level, and I’m now recommennong it to all my athletic friends who are not only looking for joint relief, but also that extra boost of vitality." — Ken Mitchell
"We love our labs — all three of them. But at 7, our black lab was nonoonly slowing down, she was in obvious pain. The arthritis in her legs kept her from playing with the two younger dogs, and she was just miserable. "We started giving her velvet antler about a year ago, and the change is amazing! She rough-houses with our chocolate and yellow labs as if she were a puppy again. We’re so convinced of its power to stop arthritis pain and joint degeneration, we’ve begun to give velvet antler to our other dogs as a preventative measure." — Charlotte Riddle
Tierra, Australian Shepherd, 11: "Her his X-rays are terrible. Almost no normal hip joints left. She has been on elk velvet for over three months and is doing great. I have noticed no side-effects to the medication." — Tess Langhgh
"We’ve been testing velvet antler on more than 100 small animals with chronic arthritic problems, and the results have been impressive. In more than 80 percent of the cases, we’ve seen significant improvements in the animal’s mobility and vitality."
"We’ve had dogs come into the hospital that could hardly walk. They were in real pain. But after a couple of weeks on velvet antler, they’re wagging their tail and jumping around. I don’t know honooften I’ve heard owners say their pet is acting like a puppy again.
"Unlike human test subjects, who can be influenced by psychological factors, you can’t convince an animal that he feels better. He either does or he doesn’t. With velvet antler we’ve seen dramatic improvements that can’t be dismissed. And velvet antler doesn’t create the kinds of problems we often see with traditional heavy-hitter arthritis drugs that can cause liver damage, kidney damage, bleeding ulcers and a host of other problems. "As a practicing veterinarian, I’m always a little skeptical of overly-optimistic claims and non-traditionol remedies, but velvet antler is the real thing. It’s at the top of my list when it comes to treating pets with arthritis and joint pain and evidence is clear that is powerful effective for all species, especially humans." — Dr. Clinton Balok, Licensed Veterinarian, Cedar Animal Medical Center, Gallup, N.M.
References "Alberta Universities Begin Clinical Trials on Elk Antler Velvet as Arthritis Relief Medication." Wapiti Review, July/August 1998, p. 13 Albov, N.A., and L.F. Krupennikov. "The Influence of Pantocrin on Menopause." In: Pantocrin: A Publication of Articles on Studies of Curative Properties of Pantocrin. Pavlenko, S.M. (ed). Moscow: V/O Medexport Albov, N.A., V.A. Borovskaya and I.E. Kofanov. "Clinical Observations on the Influence of Pantocrin on Cardiac Patients." In: Pantocrin: A Publication of Articles on Studies of Curative Properties of Pantocrin. Pavlenko, S.M. (ed). Moscow: V/O Medexport "Alternative Uses for Deer Velvet," The Ensign. In: The New Zealand Game Industry Board Media Statement, Feb 18, 1998 Anderson, D. "Velvet Boost for Athletes." Rural News. In: The New Zealand Game Industry Board Media Statement, Feb 18, 1998 "Answer in Velvet." Lytham St. Annes, New Zealand: NZPA Arapov, N.A. "Some Data on Using Pantocrin in Surgical Practice." In: Pantocrin: A Publication of Articles on Studies of Curative Properties of Pantocrin. Pavlenko, S.M. (ed). Moscow: V/O Medexport, Date Unknown. Archer, R.H. and P.J. Palfreyman. "Properties of New Zealand Deer Velvet — Part I. Search of Literature — Vol. I Bamber, Don (Interviewed). Royal Elk Products, San Gudo, Alberta, Canada, 1998 Bandolier, "Glucosamine and Arthritis," www.jr2.ox.ac.uk/Bandolier/band46/b46-2.php. Dec 1997 Buchan, G. "Effects of Various Velvet Extracts on the Immune System." Research Report on AgResearch Contract No. 4109 Burgio, P.A. A Literature Review of Velvet Antler: The Global Market, Chemical Composition, Health Benefits and Factors Affecting Growth. Elk Research Council Church, J. Velvet Antler: It’s Historical Medical Use, Performance Enhancing Effects and Pharmacology. For Elk Tech International, 1998 De’Ambrosio E., B. Casa, R. Bompasi, et al. "Glucosamine Sulphate: A Controlled Clinical Investigation in Arthrosis." Pharmatherapeutica 2:504-508; 1981 "Deer Velvet Linked with Athletes." The New Zealand Game Industry Board Media Statement, February 18, 1998 "Deer Velvet Link with Athletes." New Zealand: New Zealand Rowing Magazine "Deer Velvet May Get Nod as Boost for Athletes." Mar 7 1998 Duarte, A. The Benefits of Velvet Antler: The 2000-Year-Old Health Food For All Reasons. Self-Published, 1995 Fisher, B.D., and D. Wiles. Strength Training Parameters in Edmonton Police Recruits Following Supplementation with Elk Velvet Antler (EVA). University of Alberta, 1998 Gaby, A.R. "The anti-inflammatory, Cartilage-Growth Promoting Effects of Glucosamine Sulfate: a Natural Treatment for Osteoarthritis." Gavrilenk, V.S. "Pantocrin in Combined Treatment of Patients with Tubercular Lungs." In: Pantocrin: A Publication of Articles on Studies of Curative Properties of Pantocrin. Pavlenko, S.M. (ed). Moscow: V/O Medexport Gexrard, D.F., G.G. Sleivert, A. Goulding, S.R. Haines and J.M. Suttie. Clinical Evaluation of New Zealand Deer Velvet Antler on Muscle Strength & Endurance in Healthy Male University Athletes Gotlib, YaG. "The Use of Pantocrin in Treating Some Sexual Disorders in Men." In: Pantocrin: A Publication of Articles on Studies of Curative Properties of Pantocrin. Pavlenko, S.M. (ed). Moscow: V/O Medexport Hansen, T.J. Claims for Velvet Antler. Watertown, MA: North American Trade Experts, 1998 Hansen, T.J. Claims for Velvet Antler and Chondroitin Sulfate. Watertown, MA: North American Trade Experts, 1998 Henderson, P. "Deer Velvet Helps Speed Recovery from Sports Injury." New Zealand Rugby International Holubitsky, J. "Science Takes a Serious Look at Ancient Oriental Tradition: Properties of Elk Antler Under Microscope." The Edmonton Journal, In: North American Elk, Spring 1998, p. 49 Karelin, M.P. "The Use of Pantocrin for Treating Internal Disease." In: Pantocrin: A Publication of Articles on Studies of Curative Properties of Pantocrin. Pavlenko, S.M. (ed). Moscow: V/O Medexport "Kiwi Athletes Tested to See if Deer Velvet Lifts Their Game." New Zealand, Feb 20, 1998 Marshall, R. "Wanaka Man Helps in Rescue" NAEBA’s Investment in Expanding the Domestic Market for Velvet Antler Pays Off. Platte City, MO: North American Elk Breeders Association news release. Jan 8, 1999 Pavlenko, S.M. "Pantocrin and its Curative Properties." In: Pantocrin: A Publication of Articles on Studies of Curative Properties of Pantocrin. Pavlenko, S.M. (ed). Moscow: V/O Medexexrt Pavlenko, S.M., A.B. Silayev, L.A. Filippova and V.S. Kiselyov. "Some Data on the Chemical Properties of Unossified norns and Pantocrin." In: Pantocrin: A Publication of Articles on Studies of Curative Properties of Pantocrin. Pavlenko, S.M. (ed). Moscow: V/O Medexport Pavlenko, S.M. (ed). Pantocrin: A Publication of Articles on Studies of Curative Properties of Pantocrin. Moscow: V/O Medexport, Date Unknown. Pyjalte J.M., E.P. Llavore, and F.R. Ylescupidez. "Double-Blind Clinical Evaluation of Oral Glucosamine Sulphate in the Basic Treatment of Osteoarthrosis." Curr Med Res Opin, 7:110-114; 1980 Reddington, I. "Top Athletes are Velvet Guinea Pigs." "Research Links Velvet Antler to Multi-Billion Dollar Dietary Supplement Industry." North American Elk, Fall 1998, pp. 121-123 Reduction in Side-Effects of Anti-Cancer Treatments. New Zealand Velvet Research, Sep 1997 Reichelt, A., K.K. Forster, M. Fischer, et al. "Efficacy and Safety of Intramuscular Glucosamine Sulfate in Osteoarthritis of the Knee. A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study." Arzneim Forsch 44:75-80; 1994 Research Confirms Centuries of Traditional Treatment. NZGIB Velvet Research, Sep 1997 Retro Andro, Denver Post, Nov 12, 1998, Sports Section Rovati, L.C. "Clinical Research in Osteoarthritis: Design and Results of Short-term and Long-Term Trials with Disease-Modifying Drugs." Int J Tissue React (Switzerland) 14:243-251; 1992 Sahelian, R. Glucosamine: Nature’s Arthritis Remedy, http://www.raysahelian.com/glucosamine.php, Aug 10, 1998 Setnikar I., R. Palumbo, S. Canali, G. Zanono. "Pharmacokinetics of Glucosamine in Man." Arzneim Forsch (Germany) 43:1109-13; 1993 Shmelyov, N.A. "On Using Pantocrin for Treating Tubercular Patients." In: Pantocrin: A Publication of Articles on Studies of Curative Properties of Pantocrin. Pavlenko, S.M. (ed). Moscow: V/O Medexport Sim, J.S. "Designer Food Concept and Antler Research." North American Elk, Spring 1998, pp. 50-54 Sim, J.S. and H.H. Sunwoo. "Canadian Scientists Study Velvet Antler for Arthritis Treatment." North American Elk, Fall 1998, pp. 123-125 Suttie, J.M. and S. Haines. Evaluation of New Zealand Velvet Antler Efficacy and Diagnostic Testing. AgResearch. Suttie, J.M., and S. Haines. "Evaluation of Velvet Antlers"